This article shows how to create the bootable files of OpenEmbedded for bc9. OpenEmbedded is a build framework for
embedded Linux, and it helps to install an embedded Linux for an embedded device. This article explains an installation
process of gumstix-oe. This is an OpenEmbedded, which is specifucially designed for gumstix products. The article
starts with the details of VMware, which is used for base of its development environment. Then, it contnues to provide
the instructions of how to modify the kernel for bc9.


The development environment (Ubuntu 8.04.3 LTS) is installed in VMware.
The VMware image for bc9-oe-sdk is configured as shown below.

  • Version: 6.5 compatible
  • Disk space: Virtual Disk 20G (Configure that 20G Virtual Disk is devided into 2G peaces)
  • Memory: 512M
    • Change to the allocation of the size of memory and number of processors, edit memsize and numvcpu at the VMX file.
  • Network: bridge network
  • OS
    • Ubuntu 8.04.3 LTS (After installing 8.04.2LTS, update it)
    • Modifies the selected applications (shown below), and the rest of the applications remains untouched. Leave them as
      default conditon.
    • gnome-games and other games are removed for saving disk space.
      sudo apt-get remove gnome-card-dat gnome-games gnome-games-data libggzmod4
  • ssh, ntp, vim, lv, natilus-open-terminal, adobe flash 10, and adobe acrorea are additionally installed.
  • vmware- tools have already been installed.
  • The default resolution is 1280 x 768.
  • Network is configured as obtaining the address via dhcp.
  • The pre-set User and Password are beat and beatcraft, respectively.


This section describes how to install gumstix-oe on bc9. bc9 uses a gumstix for its CPU board, but it requires some
modification on the original sorce files. This section explains how to alter the original source file.

Change the configuration of Ubuntu.

  • Change the symbolic link from dash to bash at /bin/sh. (This prevents causing an error when bitbake is built.)
    $ sudo dpkg-reconfigure dash
  • Required application tools are installed.
    $ sudo apt-get update
    $ sudo apt-get install build-essential help2man diffstat texi2html texinfo libncurses5-dev cvs gawk 
    $ sudo apt-get install python-dev python-pysqlite2 python-psyco ckermit lrzsz subversion

Obtaining gumstix-oe

Using svn checkout , obtain gumstix-oe. Apply the command lines listed below.

$ mkdir ~/gumstix 
$ cd ~/gumstix 
$ svn co https://gumstix.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/gumstix/trunk gumstix-oe

Setting up environment

  • Create the directory where the source code caches are saved.
    These are command that creates the directory, which stores the source code. The source code is automatically downloaded
    as bitbake is executed.
    $ sudo groupadd oe
    $ sudo usermod -a -G oe beat
    $ sudo mkdir /usr/share/sources
    $ sudo chgrp oe /usr/share/sources
    $ sudo chmod 0775 /usr/share/sources
    $ sudo chmod ug+s /usr/share/sources
    Since group setting is applied for the management, after this process is completed, please logout once and login again.

  • Setting up environment.
    Applying the command below, the environment variable, which is required as executing bitbake,
    is configured.
    $ cat ~/gumstix/gumstix-oe/extras/profile >> ~/.bashrc
    Once this command is executed, the information of this environment variable is written into .bashrc, and PATH always
    go through as bitbake is executed.

Adjust source files

Adjust the contents of build

  • optimize iwmmxt, and change FEED_ARCH to iwmmxt.
    beat@bc9-oe-sdk:~/gumstix/gumstix-oe$ svn diff com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/tune-iwmmxt.inc
    Index: com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/tune-iwmmxt.inc
    --- com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/tune-iwmmxt.inc	(revision 318)
    +++ com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/tune-iwmmxt.inc	(working copy)
    @@ -1,6 +1,9 @@
     # Configurations for the Intel PXA27x Appications Processor Family. 
     # Please use tune-xscale for PXA255/PXA26x based processors.
    -TARGET_CC_ARCH = "-march=iwmmxt -mcpu=iwmmxt -mtune=iwmmxt"
    +FEED_ARCH = "iwmmxt"
    +TARGET_CC_ARCH = "-march=iwmmxt -mtune=iwmmxt"
    +TARGET_CC_KERNEL_ARCH = "-march=iwmmxt -mtune=iwmmxt"
     PACKAGE_ARCH = "iwmmxt"
     PACKAGE_EXTRA_ARCHS += "iwmmxt"
  • Increase the size of kernel image. (Later kernel will be updated to 2.6.29, and the newer kernel requires a larger
    portion of the allocated aria.)
    eat@bc9-oe-sdk:~/gumstix/gumstix-oe$ svn diff com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/gumstix.inc
    Index: com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/gumstix.inc
    --- com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/gumstix.inc	(revision 318)
    +++ com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/include/gumstix.inc	(working copy)
    @@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
     PREFERRED_PROVIDER_virtual/kernel = "gumstix-kernel"
     KERNEL_IMAGETYPE = "uImage"
     RDEPENDS_kernel-base = ""
    -KERNEL_IMAGE_MAXSIZE = "1048577"
    +KERNEL_IMAGE_MAXSIZE = "2097154"
     UBOOT_ENTRYPOINT = "a0008000"
  • Booting from microSD, change to mmcboot. Bluetooth is disabled since bc9 does not intend to use Bluetooth.
    beat@bc9-oe-sdk:~/gumstix/gumstix-oe$ svn diff com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/gumstix-custom-verdex.conf
    Index: com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/gumstix-custom-verdex.conf
    --- com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/gumstix-custom-verdex.conf      (revision 318)
    +++ com.gumstix.collection/conf/machine/gumstix-custom-verdex.conf	(working copy)
    @@ -5,12 +5,12 @@
     MACHINE_FEATURES += "verdex"
     MACHINE_FEATURES += "iwmmxt"
     require conf/machine/include/gumstix.inc
    -require conf/machine/include/tune-xscale.inc
    +require conf/machine/include/tune-iwmmxt.inc
     # Your flash size = Total flash (in MB) - 1 (for linux kernel partition)
    -ROOT_FLASH_SIZE = "15"
    -#ROOT_FLASH_SIZE = "31"
    +#ROOT_FLASH_SIZE = "15"
    +ROOT_FLASH_SIZE = "30"
     # Enable use of virtual terminal for LCD on tty1 if USE_VT = "1" 
    @@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
     #MACHINE_FEATURES  += "spi"
     MACHINE_FEATURES  += "serial"
    -MACHINE_FEATURES  += "bluetooth"
    +#MACHINE_FEATURES  += "bluetooth"
     MACHINE_FEATURES  += "sound"
     # if you enable robostix you will need to disable both "lcd" and "touchscreen" features
    @@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
     MACHINE_FEATURES  += "fat"
     # enable one of the following if you want to target build for uimage/rootfs on mmc/microSD or CF
    -#MACHINE_FEATURES  += "mmcroot"
    +MACHINE_FEATURES  += "mmcroot"
     #MACHINE_FEATURES  += "cfroot"


Caution: as executing bitbake gumstix-basic-image, it returns 404 Not Found at the part of zlib-native-1.2.3. To obtain
zlib-1.2.3, edit bb file as it is shown below. (As of June 10, 2010, zlib is updated, and the current version is zlib-1.2.5.)

$ vi gumstix/gumstix-oe/org.openembedded.snapshot/packages/zlib/zlib_1.2.3.bb
LICENSE = "zlib"

#SRC_URI = "http://www.zlib.net/zlib-1.2.3.tar.bz2 \
SRC_URI = "http://sourceforge.net/projects/libpng/files/zlib/1.2.3/zlib-1.2.3.tar.bz2
                file://visibility.patch;patch=1 \
                file://autotools.patch;patch=1 " 

S = "${WORKDIR}/zlib-${PV}

Applying the command below, build the kernel for bootable microSD and userland.

$ bitbake gumstix-basic-image

As the build process is completed, following files are generated.

beat@bc9-oe-sdk:~/gumstix/gumstix-oe/tmp/deploy/glibc/images/gumstix-custom-verdex$ ls -l
total 18152
-rw-r--r-- 1 beat beat 8576116 2009-07-24 18:57 Angstrom-gumstix-basic-image-glibc-ipk-2007.9-test-20090724-gumstix-custom-verdex.rootfs.jffs2
-rw-rw-r-- 1 beat beat 7081015 2009-07-24 18:57 Angstrom-gumstix-basic-image-glibc-ipk-2007.9-test-20090724-gumstix-custom-verdex.rootfs.tar.gz
lrwxrwxrwx 1 beat beat      94 2009-07-24 18:57 gumstix-basic-image-gumstix-custom-verdex.jffs2 -> Angstrom-gumstix-basic-image-glibc-ipk-2007.9-test-20090724-gumstix-custom-verdex.rootfs.jffs2
lrwxrwxrwx 1 beat beat      95 2009-07-24 18:57 gumstix-basic-image-gumstix-custom-verdex.tar.gz -> Angstrom-gumstix-basic-image-glibc-ipk-2007.9-test-20090724-gumstix-custom-verdex.rootfs.tar.gz
-rw-rw-r-- 1 beat beat 1881391 2009-07-24 18:24 modules-2.6.21-r1-gumstix-custom-verdex.tgz
-rw-r--r-- 1 beat beat  998520 2009-07-24 18:24 uImage-2.6.21-r1-gumstix-custom-verdex.bin

The kernel, which is generated from the process above , is version 2.6.21. As building the bootable microSD, bc9 is intend
using version 2.6.29. Applying the command line in the next section, kernel 2.6.21 will be replaced with 2.6.29. Actually
the file required for the bootable microSD is only one, which is shown below.


2.6.29 kernel & modules

linux-android-2.6.29 kernel, which is generated form bc9-android-sdk, is changed its name into linux-android-2.6.29, and
it is copied to the directory /home/beat/kernel_work/. After applying patch, linux-android-2.6.29 is renamed to
linux-android-2.6.29-bc9-r3. Create the environment set-up file, envsetup.sh, which cross compiles only the kernel. This is
how to create the environment set-up file.


export PATH=/home/beat/gumstix/gumstix-oe/tmp/cross/bin:$PATH
export ARCH=arm
export CROSS_COMPILE=arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-

Letting this file source, execute make on linux-android-2.6.29-bc9-rc3, and it can perform kernel build. To create the microSD
bootable files for bc9, the process requires extra work. To use the lines of code shown below, create make-bc9-kernel.sh, and
execute this on linux-android-2.6.29-bc9-r3.


export LANG=C

GUMSTIX_HOME=" /home/beat/gumstix/gumstix-oe"


KERNREL=`make kernelrelease`
KERNVER=`make kernelversion`

echo "### Cleanup"
rm -rf ${MOD_WORKDIR}

echo "### Build kernel"
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to build kernel"
    exit 1

echo "### Make kernel image"
${OBJCOPY} -O binary -R .note -R .comment \
-S ./arch/arm/boot/compressed/vmlinux linux.bin
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to make kernel image"
    exit 1

${MKIMG} -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a ${UBOOT_ENTRYPOINT} \
-e ${UBOOT_ENTRYPOINT} -n "oe/verdex/arm" -d linux.bin ${KERNIMG}
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to make kernel image"
    exit 1


echo "### Install modules"
make ARCH=arm DEPMOD=echo INSTALL_MOD_PATH=${MOD_WORKDIR} modules_install
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to modules_install"
   exit 1

if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to depmod modules"
    exit 1

echo "### Make modules tar ball"
tar czvf ${MODTGZ} -C ${MOD_WORKDIR} lib
if [ $? != 0 ]; then
    echo "*** Failed to make modules tarball"
    exit 1


echo "### Finished"
ls -l ${KERNIMG} ${MODTGZ}  

As make is completed, the make process generates the standard files such as vmlinux. In addtion to these standard files, this
make process also creates bc9 specific:

-rw-rw-r--  1 beat beat 1.4M 2009-07-28 20:39 modules-2.6.29-bc9-r3.tgz
lrwxrwxrwx  1 beat beat   25 2009-07-28 20:39 modules-2.6.29-bc9.tgz -> modules-2.6.29-bc9-r3.tgz
-rw-rw-r--  1 beat beat 1.5M 2009-07-28 20:38 uImage-2.6.29-bc9-r3.bin
lrwxrwxrwx  1 beat beat   24 2009-07-28 20:38 uImage-2.6.29-bc9.bin -> uImage-2.6.29-bc9-r3.bin

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Last-modified: 2010-11-02 (Tue) 06:35:27 (2637d)